Tag: White Wheat Flour Type 550

Legendary Dishes | Plăcintă / Platsindy / Плацинды (pies)


Traditionally made with a dough from flour, oil, water and salt, these pies are shared by the diverse peoples of the Balkans and the lands to the north and east – Moldova, Romania and Ukraine.

They also share another common tradition – the desire to use every type of filling that is indigenous. This includes apple, cabbage, cheese, cherry, poppy, potato, pumpkin, soured cabbage, walnut.

These days the dough is a trip through the myriad dough preparations now prominent in the Balkans and eastern Europe, preparations that are bread doughs, bread-cake doughs, cake doughs, pastry doughs, plain doughs and soda doughs.

The shape of the pie is also distinctive, round, rolled or square, folded or what is known as skirts-up because the thin corners of the dough are stretched and brought together over the filling and sealed like an envelope.

Here we present the various doughs, for the fillings go to the separate recipes.

Dough Basic (Plain)

  • 500 g white wheat flour
  • 275 g water
  • 30 ml sunflower oil
  • 1 tsp salt

Sift flour into a large bowl, add salt. Work the oil and water into the flour to form a loose dough. Cover, rest for 2 hours.

Dough Butter

  • 500 g white wheat flour
  • 130 ml water
  • 120 g butter, melted
  • 1 egg
  • 2 tsp sunflower oil
  • 1 tsp salt

Sift flour into a large bowl, add salt. Make a hole in the flour, add butter, egg, oil and water. Bring together, knead into an elastic dough. Place dough back in the bowl, cover with a damp cloth, rest for 30 minutes.

Dough Kefir

  • 500 g white wheat flour
  • 220 ml kefir
  • 1 egg
  • 30 ml sunflower oil
  • 10 g salt

Sift flour into a large bowl, add salt and mix. Add egg, kefir and oil, knead for 5 minutes into a smooth dough. Cover, rest for 2 hours.

Dough Vinegar

  • 500 g white wheat flour
  • 275 ml water
  • 15 ml vinegar
  • 15 ml sunflower oil
  • 10 g salt

Sift flour into a large bowl, add salt. Work the oil, vinegar and water into the flour to form a loose dough. Cover, rest for 1 hour.

Dough Yeast

  • 500 g white wheat flour
  • 275 ml water, warmed
  • 30 ml vegetable oil
  • 30 g yeast
  • 1 tsp sugar
  • 1 tsp salt

Put the sugar into a bowl, add the warm water, stir to dissolve the sugar, add yeast, leave to foam. Sift flour into a large bowl, add salt. Add the yeast mixture to the flour. Knead into a loose dough, add the oil in stages. Leave to rise for an hour, degas, leave for a further hour.









Soured Cabbage


Pies of

Breads of Europe | Baslerbröt (Basel bread)


Basel is well known for its bakers and it is also known for a bread with a soft crumb and a floury crunchy crust that may have originated in the home not the bakery. Traditionally Basel bread is made with a levain (starter) and with ruchmeal (the half white flour characteristic of Swiss flour mixes).


  • 300 ml water
  • 150 g whole wheat flour
  • 150 g white wheat flour, t550 or higher
  • 5 g yeast


  • 600 g levain
  • 600 g white wheat flour, t550 or higher
  • 500 ml water, warmed
  • 100 g whole wheat flour
  • 40 g yeast
  • 35 g salt

Combine the ingredients for the starter, and leave to ferment at room temperature for 12 hours.

Dissolve yeast in the warm water.

Mix the flours in a large bowl, add the yeast water and the starter, work with a sturdy wooden spoon for ten minutes.

Cover and leave to rise for 50 minutes.

Using floured hands turn out out onto a floured surface, and with several folds push the air out of the dough.

Leave to rise for a further 50 minutes.

With floured hands divide the dough into four equal pieces, shape into rounds, place on a baking tray with the floured sides up and leave to rise, about an hour.

Pre-heat the oven to 300ºC.

When the dough is ready reduce the temperature to 230ºC, bake for 60 minutes.

Indigenous Ingredients


Legendary Dishes | Pierogi / Pīrāgi / Pirogi Пироги (bread-cake dough pies)


Pies filled closed or open with a combination from apple, cabbage, cheese, egg, mushroom, onion, potato, pumpkin and rice to accompany fish or meat with various aromatics and jams are an integral feature of the traditional food of northern Europe, from the Baltic states across to the Russian heartlands and down to the Ukrainian steppes.

What makes these particular pies unique in traditional cuisine are the various types of dough, which are a cross between a cake dough and a yeast dough with a liquid medium that could be kefir or milk, fat content that could be butter or margarine and sour cream and include potato among the various types of flour.

The sour-sweet combination that is apple, cabbage and onion is the traditional base and after that there are countless variations on numerous themes that include chicken, fish and various meats.

The pies come in all shapes and sizes.


  • 500 g white wheat flour, t550
  • 200 ml milk, warmed to 38ºC
  • 1 small egg
  • 60 g sugar
  • 50 g sour cream
  • 25 g butter / margarine, melted
  • 25 g yeast
  • 1 tbsp sunflower oil
  • 5 g salt
  • 1 egg, beaten, for glazing

Dissolve the yeast in 5 tablespoons of the warm milk and one teaspoon of sugar, leave to froth for 15 minutes.

In a bowl whisk the sour cream into the remaining milk and sugar. Add the yeast mixture followed by the melted butter or margarine, and finally the egg and salt with a few swift turns of the whisk each time. Sieve the flour into this mixture, fold out onto a clean work surface and begin to knead.

This is a sticky dough so after 5 minutes add a drop of oil, around a teaspoon, knead for a further 5 minutes, add more oil, knead again for 5 minutes, add oil and knead until the dough is elastic, adding more oil if necessary.

The desired dough temperature is 24ºC.

Leave to rise for two hours, degas, leave to rise again, for another two hours.


  • 1 green cabbage / kale, leaves separated, stems removed, blanched in hot water for 30 minutes, sliced into strips
  • 1 kg beef mince
  • 1 kg onions, sliced
  • 1 kg sour apples, peeled, cored, puréed with 30 g sugar
  • 5 g black pepper
  • 5 g salt
  • 1 tsp caraway seeds
  • 1 tbsp mixed dried herbs (from dill, lovage, marjoram, sage, tarragon)
  • Vegetable oil, for frying

Fry the onions in 2 tablespoons of oil over a high heat for 5 minutes, cover, reduce heat and cook for 30 minutes until the onions are soft and have taken on colour at the edges.

Divide the onion mixture into three portions.

Put the minced meat in the onion pan, add one third of the cooked onions and gently bring up the heat. When the meat begins to brown low the heat and reduce the liquid content.

Put the blanched cabbage strips in a small pot, add the second third of the cooked onions, cook over a medium heat until the cabbage is soft and the liquid is reduced, about 15 minutes.

Put the last third of the cooked onions in a pot, add 500 grams of apple purée, cook over a high heat until the liquid is reduced.

Grease 4 pie tins. Roll out the dough to a thickness of half a centimetre. Cut into two rounds with a sufficient amount of dough to come up the sides, press into the tins. Leave to rise for 30 minutes.

Roll out the remaining dough and cut into rounds slightly larger than the diametre of the pie tins.

Preheat oven to 180ºC.

Spoon the meat-onion mixture onto the bottom of each pie dough, cover with the cabbage-onion mixture followed by the apple-onion mixture. Top with remaining apple purée.

Place the dough rounds on top. Seal the edges of each dough, impress edges with a fork. Pierce the top of each pie with the fork. Glaze the tops with an egg wash.

Bake for 35 minutes.

Legendary Dishes | Burgonyás Lángos (fried potato flatbread)


The resurgence of lángos – the aromatic flatbreads of Hungary, popular across central Europe and the Balkans – is not a surprise to snack food aficionados. Always popular as a street food, lángos gradually became a fast-food restaurant favourite. Now the bread that was once baked in brick ovens and given its name because it was close to the flame is a traditional deep-fried snack food. This is the potato version, made with a mixture of mashed potato and wheat flour.

  • 500 g white wheat flour, t500
  • 250 g potatoes, boiled, mashed
  • 150 ml milk, lukewarm
  • 20 g yeast
  • 1 tsp sugar
  • 1 tsp salt
  • Oil, for frying

Dissolve the sugar and yeast in the warm milk, leave for 15 minutes.

Work the flour into the mashed potatoes, add salt and yeast mixture. Form into a stiff dough without too much kneading. Leave to rise for two hours at room temperature.

Shape into 100 gram balls, flatten into oblongs or ovals about 1 centimetre thick for crispy thin breads or 2 centimetres for crispy thick breads, leave to rise for an hour.

Heat oil to a height of 2 centimetres in a deep frying pan, place several of the dough pieces in the pan. Fry, spooning oil on top of the dough, for about a minute. It will puff up. Turn over and fry until the dough is golden brown.

Place on absorbant kitchen paper, dress with variations from grated cheese, crushed garlic, garlic powder, cubed ham, lemon zest, oil, sour cream and yoghurt.

Breads of Europe | Eliópsomo Pilíou Ελιόψωμο Πηλίου (Pelion olive bread)


Greek Breakfast, the food site of the Hellenic Chamber of Hotels, is a treasure of authentic local recipes, a portal into the unique world of Greek traditional food.

It describes the olive cake of Pelion ‘as a type of bread in which the dough is mixed with pine olives to produce a strong aroma and taste of oil’. An ancient product, ‘baked before the usual bread loaves, today it is mainly a tourist type produced by the “traditional” bakeries in the many villages of Pelion’.

A basic yeast dough made with soft wheat flour, we have tweaked the recipe to enhance the flavour with the introduction of a small amount of sourdough, a larger amount of oil and a whole spelt version.

In Pelion it is served warm ‘when the aroma of the oil is particularly intense’.

The desired dough temperature is 25ºC.

  • 500 g white wheat flour, t550 / whole spelt flour
  • 15 g yeast dissolved in 200 ml warm water and 5 g sugar
  • 200 g olives, pitted, halved / feta cheese or 100 g of each
  • 100 ml + 15 ml olive oil
  • 60 g sourdough
  • 2 tbsp dried mint / dried oregano / dried thyme
  • 10 g salt

Work the oil, sourdough and salt into the flour, add the yeast mixture, knead into a smooth dough, about 10 minutes.

Leave to rise for two hours, degas, work in the herbs, leave to rise for an hour, work in the olives or cheese or a mixture of both, leave for a further hour.

Divide into two equal pieces, place on a baking tray, drizzle surface with oil, leave to rise for two hours.

Bake at 190ºC for 45 minutes.

Breads of Europe | Laugengebäck / Laugenbrötchen {Nieules / Brezels / Pretzels} (lye breads)


The pretzel has come a long way from its origins in medieval France, somehow managing to retain its shape and, remarkably, the method of baking.

Maguelonne Toussaint-Samat, in her History of Food, believes its origin was a delicacy called nieules or nioles sold at French fairs.

‘They were twisted ribbons of hard, unleavened dough, cooked in boiling water with the ashes of vine shoots, which contain natural potash. They gave the dough a dark colour, whence their French name and their savoury, smoky flavour.’

The nieules were drained, dried and baked in the oven.

How they came to have a peculiar shape is told in The Great European Food Adventure.

In the 1680s the Huguenot bakers of these delicate biscuit-breads migrated to the southern German states and the northern Swiss cantons.

The nieule became the bretzeln, and over time became to be known as brezel, then laugenbrezel and laugengebäck in Baden, Bavaria and Swabia, laugenbrötli in Basel, Berne, Lucerne and Zurich.

The method of using potassium hydroxide from vine ash was replaced with sodium hydroxide or lye (lauge in German), and eventually with baking soda.

Laugengebäck (lye pastry), laugenbrezel (lye pretzel) and laugenbröd (lye bread) are interchangeable these days, but the method has not changed.
The shaped dough is boiled briefly in soda water (commercial makers use a salt bath) before baking.

In Switzerland a starch glaze made from a cornflour solution gives the pretzel its distinctive colour.

Pretzels are rarely made bald in Germany and Switzerland, and are never ordinary, coming in various shapes (buns, loaves, rolls, sticks and twists), not least the famous knotted-handles.

They are coated with coarse salt, seeds or with a topping of cheese and, depending on the region you are in, are available with an assortment of savoury or sweet fillings.


  • 500 g white wheat flour, t550
  • 245 ml water
  • 40 g butter
  • 25 g yeast
  • 15 g malt extract
  • 1 tsp salt
  • 1 tsp sugar

Lye / Soda Solution

  • 2 litres water
  • 50 g baking soda

Sieve the flour into a large bowl, crumble yeast into the flour followed by the sugar and half of the water, stir with a wooden spoon into a loose dough, cover and leave to rise for 30 minutes.

Desired dough temperature is 23°C.

Add remaining water, butter, malt and salt. Work into a soft smooth dough, knead for ten minutes. Leave to rise for an hour.

On a floured surface cut the dough into 16 pieces (roughly 50g each), shape into rounds or oblongs. Place on heavily greased baking trays.
With a sharp knife cut a cross in the rounds or several slashes in the oblongs. Leave to rise covered for 30 minutes.

Preheat oven to 220°C.

Bring the soda solution to a rolling boil, drop the dough into the water four at a time for no longer than 60 seconds.

Place on greased baking trays and bake for 25 minutes until golden brown.

BRÖTCHEN | DDR Brötchen GERMANY small bread rolls

Ostalgie, the nostalgic trend for the humdrum German Democratic Republic, has brought with it a yearning for the simple traditional food once served in the cafes and canteens of Berlin, Leipzig and other East German cities. These breakfast rolls were soft and salty, and were made more often than not with margarine and whey.


  • 250 g white wheat flour, t405 / t550, warmed
  • 250 ml milk, full-fat / whey, warmed to 38ºC
  • 20 g yeast

Dissolve yeast in a little of the milk or whey. In a large bowl stir remaining milk or whey into the flour with the yeast mixture. Rest overnight at room temperature.

Second Dough

250 g white wheat flour, t405 / t550
75 g sugar
25 g butter / lard / margarine
15 g salt
5 g barley / wheat malt
Milk, for brushing

Sieve flour into a large bowl, add salt and sugar, incorporate the butter, lard or margarine, then add the pre-ferment. Knead into a soft smooth dough, about 10 minutes. Cover and leave to rise until doubled in size, about an hour. Degas, leave for an hour, cut into 12 pieces (roughly 65 g each), shape into balls, arrange on baking trays. Cover. Preheat oven to 220°C. When they have risen, brush lightly with milk. Place a tray of hot water in the bottom of the oven. Bake for 15 minutes.

BRÖTCHEN | Rosinenbrötchen SWITZERLAND raisin bread rolls

  • 400 g white wheat flour, t550
  • 225 ml milk, full-fat, warmed to 38ºC
  • 100 g raisins soaked in 200 ml rum overnight, drained
  • 100 g strong white flour
  • 75 g vanilla sugar
  • 1 egg
  • 45 g butter, soft
  • 20 g yeast
  • 5 g barley malt
  • 5 g salt
  • ½ tsp cardamom, ground
  • ½ tsp cinnamon, ground


  • 1 egg yolk
  • 15 ml milk

Sieve flours into a large bowl, add the barley malt, salt and spices, stir and leave. Dissolve yeast in the milk and sugar. Work the butter into the flour, add the yeast mixture and egg. Knead for 10 minutes into a smooth soft dough. Leave to rise for an hour, degas. Knead the raisins into the dough. Leave to rise for an hour, degas. Divide dough into 85 g pieces, shape into balls and place on a baking tray covered with greaseproof paper. Preheat oven to 200°C. Leave balls to rise for 50 minutes. Glaze and bake for 25 minutes.

BRÖTCHEN | Gewürzzopf Brötchen SWITZERLAND spiced braid bread rolls

  • 500 g Zopf flour (or 200 g strong white wheat flour, 200 g white spelt flour, t630, 100 g white wheat flour, t550, large pinch of barley malt flour)
  • 225 ml milk, full-fat, warmed to 38ºC
  • 75 g yogurt
  • 60 g butter, softened
  • 20 g yeast
  • 15 g brown sugar
  • 7 g salt
  • 1 tsp cinnamon, ground
  • ½ tsp cardamom, ground
  • ½ tsp cloves, ground
  • ½ tsp nutmeg, ground
  • ½ tsp turmeric


  • 1 egg yolk
  • 15 ml milk

Dissolve yeast in the milk and sugar. Mix the flours, salt and spices. Pour yeast mixture into the flour, add butter, knead into a rough dough. Gradually add the yoghurt, about 10 g at a time, working it into the dough to make it smooth. Leave to rise for an hour, degas, rise for a second hour, degas again. Divide dough into two pieces, roll out into 80 cm sticks. Braid. Cut into 85 g pieces, place on a greased baking tray, leave to rise for 30 minutes. Coat each piece with the egg-milk mixture. Preheat oven to 200ºC. Bake for 15 minutes.

BRÖTCHEN | Burli SWITZERLAND wheat bread rolls

Bürli dough after kneading

A popular bread in eastern Switzerland bürli are eaten with St Gallen bratwürst. Generally they are made with prepared flour called bürlimehl (wheat flour, wheat gluten, barley malt flour and acerola powder). Artisanal hand-made handbürli are preferred to maschinenbürli, the mass produced version.

Pre-ferment / Sourdough

  • 150 ml water
  • 75 g strong white wheat flour / white wheat flour, t550
  • 75 g white spelt flour, t630
  • 5 g yeast

Stir flours into water and yeast in a large bowl. Rest for 18 hours at room temperature.

Final Dough

  • 300 g sourdough
  • 175 g white wheat flour, t550, warmed
  • 100 ml water / milk, warmed to 38ºC
  • 50 g rye flour, warmed
  • 50 g wholewheat flour t1050, warmed
  • 20 g yeast
  • 10 g salt
  • 5 g barley malt flour
  • Warmed water for wash

Dissolve yeast in milk or water.

Work flours, malt, salt and yeast liquid into pre-ferment to make a soft elastic dough, about 20 minutes’ hard kneading.

Rest for three hours, degas after an hour.

Cut dough into 85 gram pieces, shape into rolls, lightly wash with warm water, make a deep cut on the top of each roll.

Place on floured baking trays. Leave to rest for an hour.

Preheat oven to highest setting.

Place a tray of water in the bottom of the oven.

Reduce heat to 230°C, bake for 20 minutes, opening oven to allow residual vapour to escape, then bake for a further ten minutes. This will produce dark crusts on the breads.

For lighter crusts reduce starting heat to 210°C and take out after 20 minutes.