Tag: Veal

Cooked, Cured, Curdled | The Story of Traditional Food in Europe – Part 4

Of all the indigenous produce in Europe the bolet is the most popular mushroom


The winter wonderland of the Ursern Valley became a reality for outsiders who wanted to witness Goethe’s ‘snow-capped mountainous desert’ when rail followed road. Open to easterlies and westerlies, heavy precipitation (with snow 184 days a year) and bitterly cold winds, winters in the Ursern valley are harsh and long. Summers are generally warm and wet.

The first settlers in the Ursern contributed to the monotonous landscape. They cleared forested slopes to gain new pastureland. Their animals denuded the slopes. Constantly threatened by devastating avalanches, the valley was almost bare when houses began to dot the landscape.

In 1397 a notice was issued that forbid the removal of the trees by their inhabitants and their descendants. Experience showed that a forested slope provided protection against avalanches, rockfalls and whitewater. Hardly anyone took notice and almost 500 years passed before a plan was made to erect avalanche barriers and begin reforestation.

By 1950 three new forests had been created. The forested land around Andermatt, the principle town of the valley, was doubled and forest wildernesses were created to promote biodiversity. Now there are almost 170 hectares of high forest in the Ursern Valley.

The hunting of deer, chamois, marmots, foxes and badgers is allowed for two weeks each September. Small game hunting season runs from 15 October to 30 November. Wild berry collecting has no limit. However wild mushroom collecting has a daily limit – no more than 500 grams of morels, 2 kilos of chanterelles and 3 kilos of boletus and other mushrooms.

A rival to mushroom soup and stew containing mushrooms, among the most popular traditional dishes in Europe, sausage with mushroom sauce is prominent.

The sausage might be smoked or it might be spicy. It might be cut up and served in the sauce. Generally the sausage is left whole, grilled and served with potatoes and the sauce.

In Switzerland the large pork sausages called bratwürst are a popular snack with bread and condiments. They come alive when they are served with creamed mushroom sauce that sometimes comes with the grated potato dish called rösti.

Ever since the white mushrooms known as champignon d‘Paris became popular they have replaced the bolet mushroom in this sauce, although clever chefs add reconstituted dried porcini to give the sauce an earthy depth of flavour.

So while the champignonrahmsauce is a pragmatic accessory to the bratwürst among chefs and cooks, those with access to the mushrooms of the forest prefer to make this typically Swiss dish with fresh boletus. Then it becomes bratwürst mit steinpilzerahmsauce, a totally different reality with no equal.

The mushroom hunters who bring home freshly dug bolets and chanterelles usually have two thoughts in their mind.

Do I fry these mushrooms in a little oil and eat them with fresh bread?

Do I fry them in oil and add fresh eggs to make an omelette garnished with freshly cracked black peppercorns?

As a traditional accompaniment, creamed mushroom sauce features with slices of veal and once again the champignon d‘Paris is favoured. It also features with meatballs in a dish that is popular in Poland, where the cream is sour cream and, in typical Polish tradition, the sauce is piquant. The choice of mushrooms is more egalitarian. In Italy the sauce is made with cream, garlic and, not unsurprisingly, porcini.


Legendary Dishes | Dodine de Canard (boned stuffed duck and variations)

FRANCE

Version 1

In her Recipes of all Nations, Marcelle Morphy gives an adaptation of the ‘quaint original recipe in old French’ from the 14th century Le Grand Cuisinier de Toute Cuisine of this classic duck dish.

Alas all to no avail!

The more complicated boned version, triumphed by Prosper Montagne in his Larousse Gastronomique, has completely usurped the rustic version to the extent that it is now almost forgotten.

Here is an adaptation of Countess Morphy’s Dodine de Canard.

  • 2 kg duck, jointed in 8 pieces
  • 600 ml dry red wine
  • 250 g mushrooms, quartered
  • 100 ml brandy
  • 4 onions, sliced
  • 1 bay leaf
  • 1 clove garlic
  • 1 sprig of thyme
  • Parsley, handful
  • 15 g olive oil Salt Pepper

Marinade duck pieces with the brandy, onion and wine, and large pinches of salt and pepper. Leave for three hours.

Strain the marinade liquid, dry duck pieces.

Brown the duck pieces in oil over a high heat in a heavy based saucepan. Add marinade liquid, the herbs, garlic and mushrooms.

Turn heat down, simmer for 60 minutes.

Serve with cooking liquid, and a choice of vegetables.

Version 2

This is an adaptation of the boned, stuffed version.

  • 2 kg duck
  • 1 litre broth
  • 250 g fatty bacon / pork belly (half fat-half flesh), chopped small
  • 250 g pork tenderloin, chopped small
  • 250 g veal, chopped small
  • 250 g white mushrooms, chopped
  • Duck liver, chopped
  • 2 eggs
  • 45 g almonds, ground
  • 1 slice of fresh foie gras (optional)
  • 45 ml brandy / cognac
  • 15 g + 5 g salt
  • 15 g butter
  • 10 g ground mixed spices (from caraway, cinnamon, cloves, fennel)
  • 5 g + 5 g black pepper
  • 5 parsley stalks with leaves, chopped
  • 5 sage leaves, chopped

Starting at the back, debone the duck without damaging the skin. Remove all the flesh from the skin, cut the flesh into small pieces. Keep the breasts intact, remove the skin and fat, cut into strips, place in a bowl with brandy or cognac and half of the ground spices, refrigerate for 24 hours. Season the skin on both sides.

Sauté the duck liver in the butter for a few minutes, remove from heat and leave to cook. Combine the bacon or pork belly, pork loin, veal and the flesh from the duck. Season this mixture with remainder of spices, the black pepper and salt. Add the almonds, eggs, mushrooms, parsley and sage and, if using, the foie gras. Work this mixture with your hands for a few minutes.

Spread the mixture over the middle of the duck skin. Place the marinated breast strips on top. Bring the skin together, tie the neck and tail ends with string. Tie some string around the dodine to hold it together.

Preheat the oven to 180ºC. Place the dodine in a casserole dish, pour the broth and the liquid from the marinade, cook for arpound two hours. Baste with the cooking liquid from time to time. When the dodine is cooked remove from the oven. Leave to rest for a few minutes, then cut the string.

Put four tablespoons of the cooking liquid into a small saucepan, add half a glass of wine, reduce by half.

If a cold dodine is required, leave to cool in the liquid, then cut off the string. Spoon 500 ml of the cooking liquid into a pot, reduce until there is only about four tablespoons left, leave to cool. Cover the duck with the resulting jelly and place in the refrigerator. Retain the jelly and repeat a second time several hours later. Leave the dodine in the refrigerator for at least 24 hours.

Serve cold, sliced with a salad

Version 3

This is a modern interpretation of the original recipe.

  • 3 x 350 g duck fillets, skinned
  • 250 g duck liver, sliced
  • 200 g pork loin, chopped
  • 200 g veal, chopped
  • 150 g fat bacon, chopped
  • 130 ml brandy
  • 100 ml white wine
  • 80 g 1-day old white bread roll
  • 45 ml milk
  • 45 g truffles, sliced (optional)
  • 20 g butter
  • 12 sage leaves, sliced
  • 1 tsp allspice, ground
  • Black pepper, large pinch
  • Salt, large pinch
  • 1 pork caul

Cut duck fillets into 2cm thick slices, marinade in brandy and seasonings overnight.

Soak bread bun in milk for 20 minutes, squeeze to remove liquid.

Brown the liver in butter, leave to cool.

Combine the allspice, bacon, bread, duck, liver, pork, sage, seasonings and veal in marinade liquid.

Soak the caul in cold water.

Stuff caul with meat mixture, tie with string.

Preheat oven to 180°C.

Place caul in a baking tray.

Bake at 160°C for two hours.

When cold remove to fridge for 12 hours before serving.

Version 4

This version is cooked slowly in broth.

  • 2 litres broth
  • 1.5 kg duck
  • 500 g pork tenderloin, sliced
  • 250 g veal, sliced
  • Duck liver, sliced
  • 2 eggs
  • 15 ml brandy
  • 10 g salt
  • 1 tsp allspice, ground
  • 1 tsp pepper
  • Butter, for frying

Open the duck from the back, slowly stripping back the skin. Carefully remove the flesh from the skin and excess fat, taking each breast out whole. Debone.

Cut the breast into little slices, like aiguillettes.

Fry liver in butter for five minutes, leave to cool.

Slice the rest of the duck flesh and add to the liver, pork and veal in a large bowl. Season with allspice, pepper and salt, mix in the eggs and brandy.

Return to the spread-out duck, season liberally with pepper, and spoon the meat mixture over the central area. Salt the aiguillettes and lay them evenly over the mixture.

Being all the edges of the duck skin together and sew tightly. Wrap in muslin, tie both ends.

Put in a large pot with the broth, bring to a slow boil, then simmer for two hours.

Serve hot or cold.

Legendary Dishes | Marengo Viande de Veau (veal in garlic, tomato and wine sauce)

FRANCE

Chef Dunand‘s original creation for Napoleon Bonaparte after the battle of Marengo in 1800 involved a jointed chicken fried in oil, finished in a delicious brandy, garlic and tomato sauce. Over the years, white wine replaced brandy, onions were added, and veal joined chicken as the choice of meat.

  • 2 kg veal from shoulder, cubed
  • 1 kg tomatoes, peeled, chopped
  • 240 g onions, chopped
  • 200 ml white wine
  • 150 ml water
  • 125 ml olive oil, for frying
  • 12 garlic cloves, crushed
  • 1 bay leaf
  • 1 rosemary sprig
  • 1 thyme sprig
  • Salt, pinch
  • Parsley, for garnish

In a large saucepan sauté garlic and onions in half of the oil, about two minutes.

Add water, tomatoes and salt, cook over a medium heat for 20 minutes, until the tomatoes are soft and most of the liquid has evaporated..

Brown veal in a separate pan in remaining oil, add to sauce.

De-glaze pan with wine and add to sauce, cover, simmer for an hour.

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Fricot Feature | The Goulash Story in Five Recipes

BELGIUM FRANCE HUNGARY LIECHTENSTEIN LUXEMBOURG NETHERLANDS ROMANIA

1: Kalbsrahmgulasch LIECHTENSTEIN creamy veal stew

This is the meat stew most people believe is goulash. It is a dish that became popular during the Austro-Hungarian era, now a traditional dish in Austria, Germany and Liechtenstein. Beef shoulder can be used as a substitute. This is an adaptation of the recipe by chef Christian Helmreich at Restaurant Engel in Vaduz. This stew is generally served with the small dumplings known as spätzle.

  • 1 kg veal shoulder, 4 cm cubed
  • 500 ml veal stock / beer
  • 375 g onions, sliced
  • 150 ml double cream / crème fraîche
  • 150 ml white wine
  • 125 g long red peppers, sliced
  • 100 g sweet apple purée
  • 60 ml rapeseed oil
  • 30 g sweet paprika powder
  • 15 ml lemon juice
  • 15 g tomato paste
  • 1 garlic clove, crushed, mashed
  • 10 peppercorns, crushed
  • 6 juniper berries, crushed
  • 2 bay leaves
  • Salt, large pinch

Fry onions, peppers and garlic in half of the oil for five minutes over a high heat, reduce heat, cover and sweat for 30 minutes. Place onion-pepper mixture in an ovenproof pot, add paprika powder, tomato paste, apple purée, crushed spices and bay leaves. Heat gently for five minutes. Deglaze frying pan with the wine, add contents to the pot. Brown veal cubes in remaining oil, set aside with a slotted spoon, deglaze pan with some of the stock. Add the stock from the pan and remaining stock to the pot. Add the meat and bring to a low boil, add lemon juice and seasonings. Transfer to oven. Bake, uncovered in the middle of the oven, at 160ºC for 100 minutes, add cream and finish at 140ºC for 20 minutes.

2: Tokány ROMANIA paprika stew

This is the original meat and paprika stew. Vladimir Mirodan says it was brought south to Bucharest by young Transylvanian girls in search of services and fortune. The kidneys can be from calves, lambs or pigs. The marjoram, mushrooms, paprika and sour cream are essential. Without them it does not have the distinctive flavour that make it one of the region‘s most popular traditional dishes. This is an adaptation from Károly Gundel’s Hungarian Cookery Book.

  • 500 g mushrooms, sliced
  • 350 g beef, cut into strips
  • 350 g pork, cut into strips
  • 350 g pork kidney, blanched, cut into strips
  • 300 g sour cream
  • 200 ml water
  • 150 g onions, chopped small
  • 150 g smoked bacon, cubed
  • 60 g sunflower oil
  • 6 garlic cloves, crushed
  • 30 g hot paprika
  • 10 g black pepper, freshly ground
  • 1 tsp mild paprika
  • 5 g marjoram, fresh or dried
  • Salt, two large pinches

Sauté onions in oil in a large frying pan over a low heat for 20 minutes. Remove from heat, add hot paprika, allow to soak in. Put pan back on heat, add beef, garlic, marjoram and seasonings, sauté until beef is brown. Add half the water, simmer for 10 minutes until the liquid has evaporated. Add pork, brown, simmer for 10 minutes in remaining water. In a separate frying pan sauté bacon and kidneys over a medium heat. When the kidneys are cooked add mushrooms and seasonings, cook for five minutes. Pour contents of bacon pan into beef pan, simmer for ten minutes, add mild paprika, then the cream and bring to a low boil. The aroma from this stew deters night creatures, so heavy with the garlic.

3: Carbonnades Flamandes / Stoofvlees op Vlaamse Wijze BELGIUM FLANDERS FRANCE LUXEMBOURG NETHERLANDS beef and beer stew

The western goulash, a sweet slightly acidic traditional dish of the low countries centred on Flanders. Chimay and Rodenbach are the preferred traditional beers for this iconic dish. Leffe Brune is acceptable. Stale bread spread with mustard was the traditional method of thickening the liquid, now gingerbread with its subtle spice flavours is used.

  • 2 kg brisket / shoulder beef, cut into 3 cm pieces, seasoned
  • 1 litre beef stock
  • 600 g onions, sliced
  • 375 ml dark brown beer
  • 250 g fatty bacon, cubed
  • 2 slices gingerbread bread / white bread, crusts removed, spread with mustard
  • 60 g butter
  • 30 g brown sugar
  • 30 g white wheat flour
  • 30 g mustard
  • 30 ml olive oil
  • 2 garlic cloves, crushed
  • 10 g salt
  • 10 black peppercorns
  • 5 g black pepper, freshly ground
  • 5 juniper berries, crushed
  • Green peppercorns, large pinch
  • 4 sprigs thyme
  • 1 sprig rosemary
  • 2 bay leaves

Brown beef in half the butter and oil in a large heavy-based pot over a medium heat in batches, remove and set aside. Add remaining butter and oil to pan, turn heat to low and sauté the bacon for five minutes, then the onions for 15 minutes. Stir the flour into the onions and brown lightly. Deglaze the pan with three tablespoons of stock, then pour in remaining stock with the beer and herbs and juniper berries. Bring slowly to the boil. Add the beef, then, if using, place the mustard bread on top, mustard side down or add the gingerbread and mustard. Add the garlic, black peppercorns and seasonings, turn heat to low to medium, and simmer for two and a half hours, stirring occasionally during second hour. Sweeten with sugar and cook for 30 minutes uncovered. Season, serve with pasta or potatoes, chipped or mashed.

4: Bogracsgulyás HUNGARY kettle stew

A traditional dish of the steppes, the essential ingredient was meat dried on the saddle. The Magyars added the meat to a large pot of water, then finished the dish with the addition of dumplings or root vegetables, heavily spiced with paprika.

  • 1.5 kg beef, 2 cm cubed
  • 1.5 kg floury potatoes, peeled, 2 cm cubed
  • 1.5 litres water
  • 500 g onions, sliced
  • 250 g fatty pork belly, cubed small
  • 30 g Szeged sweet paprika
  • 10 g Szeged hot paprika
  • Seasonings

Fry pork over low heat in a large pot until the fat begins to separate and the meat turns crispy. Remove with a slotted spoon, set aside. Fry onions in fat over a high heat, about five minutes, remove and set aside. Brown beef, return the onions to the pot with the water, bring to the boil. Add the sweet paprika, cover and simmer for an hour. Carefully slip the potatoes into the pot, bring back to the boil, reduce heat to low, season, cover, leave for 20 minutes. Sprinkle half of the hot paprika on top of the stew, leave uncovered for five minutes. Serve in deep bowls, adding a pinch of hot paprika to each dish, a chunk of bread on the side to mop up the juices.

5: Gulyásleves HUNGARY beef soup

Buda and Pest are among the few centres of civilisation in Europe where the peasant culture is still reflected in the choice of traditional foods available in restaurants. In Budapest soups start every meal, and most of the time that meal is a stew. The exception is gulyásleves, the beef soup known as goulash. It is often served as a main course accompanied with egg-flour noddles. Kéhli, one of the city’s oldest restaurants, specialises in traditional food including bean, beef, chicken and fish soups and the range of stews. Sípos Halászkert serves a diverse range of fish soups.

  • 1.5 litre of water
  • 900 g beef, cubed 2 cm
  • 500 g potatoes, diced small
  • 500 g onions, chopped
  • 300 g parsnip / turnip, diced
  • 300 g tomatoes
  • 250 g carrots, diced
  • 250 g green or red peppers
  • 100 g celery, cut small
  • 30 g lovage leaves
  • 4 garlic cloves, mashed
  • 10 g paprika, hot or sweet
  • 5 g caraway seeds
  • 2 bay leaves
  • black pepper, pinch
  • salt, pinch
  • Oil, for frying

Sauté the onions in the oil for 30 minutes, increase heat and brown the beef. Reduce heat, stir in the tomatoes and peppers, add the garlic and cover. Leave to simmer for 30 minutes. Add the bay leaves, caraway seeds and paprika. After five minutes add the vegetables, remaining seasonings and water. Cook until the potatoes are al dente.


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Legendary Dishes | Kalbsrahmgulasch mit Sauerrahmspätzle (creamy veal stew with sour cream dumplings)

LIECHTENSTEIN

This is the meat stew most people believe is goulash. It is a dish that became popular during from the Austro-Hungarian era, now a traditional dish in Austria, Germany and Liechtenstein. Beef shoulder can be used as a substitute. This is an adaptation of the recipe by chef Christian Helmreich at Restaurant Engel in Vaduz.

See The Story of Goulash in Five Recipes.

  • 1 kg veal shoulder, 4 cm cubed
  • 500 ml veal stock
  • 375 g onions, sliced
  • 250 g long red peppers, sliced
  • 150 ml double cream / crème fraîche
  • 150 ml white wine
  • 100 g sweet apple purée
  • 60 ml rapeseed oil
  • 30 g dried cep mushrooms, soaked in hot water, chopped small
  • 20 g sweet paprika powder
  • 15 ml lemon juice
  • 15 g tomato paste
  • 1 garlic clove, crushed, mashed
  • 10 peppercorns, crushed
  • 6 juniper berries, crushed
  • 2 bay leaves
  • Salt, large pinch

Fry onions, peppers and garlic in half of the oil for five minutes over a high heat, reduce heat, cover and sweat for 30 minutes. Place onion-pepper mixture in an ovenproof pot, add paprika powder, tomato paste, apple purée, crushed spices and bay leaves. Heat gently for five minutes. Deglaze frying pan with the wine, add contents to the pot. Brown veal cubes in remaining oil, set aside with a slotted spoon, deglaze pan with some of the stock. Add the stock from the pan and remaining stock to the pot. Add the meat and bring to a low boil, add lemon juice, mushrooms and seasonings. Transfer to oven. Bake, uncovered in the middle of the oven, at 160ºC for 100 minutes, add cream and finish at 140ºC for 20 minutes.

Spätzle

  • 500 g flour
  • 4 eggs
  • 200 g sour cream
  • 15 g salt
  • Bunch of chives, chopped small
  • Butter (optional) Milk (optional)

Mix eggs, sour cream and salt. Add the flour and mix to a smooth dough. Add some milk if necessary. Pour the dough through a boiling sieve into boiling salt water. Remove after two minutes, quench in cold water. Sprinkle the spaetzle in the butter and place on the plate with the veal cream goulash. Garnish with cream and chives.

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Legendary Dishes | Empanadas (large pies)

SPAIN | ARGENTINA

This quantity makes four large half-moon crimped pies.

Dough

  • 300 g white wheat flour
  • 60 g butter
  • 60 ml milk, lukewarm
  • 1 egg
  • 45 ml olive oil
  • 15 g yeast
  • 1 teaspoon salt
  • 1 egg, whisked, for wash

Dissolve the yeast in the milk. Sieve flour into a large bowl, add salt, the egg, butter and olive oil. Work the mixture to form a crumble, add yeast mixture, knead into a soft smooth dough. Leave to rise for an hour, degas.

Filling – Meat

  • 1 litre water, boiling
  • 500 g beef / veal, minced
  • 500 g onions, sliced thin
  • 2 eggs, hard-boiled, chopped into small pieces
  • 30 ml vegetable oil
  • 5 g black pepper
  • 5 g red chillies, chopped
  • Salt, large pinch

Sauté onions and chillies in oil over a low heat for about 15 minutes. Pour the hot water over the meat, strain.

Filling – Vegetable

  • 350 g potatoes, cooked, cut into large pieces
  • 2 long red peppers, sliced
  • 100 g carrot, grated
  • 100 g green peas
  • 50 g onions, puréed
  • 15 ml olive oil
  • 15 g sweet paprika
  • 5 g hot smoked paprika
  • Black pepper, large pinch
  • Salt, large pinch

Heat the oil over a high heat, add red peppers, cook until they begin to soften, add the carrots. Cook for five minutes, add the onion purée, the hot paprika and half of the sweet paprika. Reduce heat, cook through, about three minutes. Spoon the mixture into a bowl, add the peas and potatoes, seasonings and remaining sweet paprika, leave to cool. Divide the dough into four equal pieces. Roll first piece into a 20 cm round, place a quarter of the filling on the round, fold over and crimp. Place on a baking tray covered with greaseproof paper. Repeat with remaining ingredients. Coat each pie with an egg wash. Leave for 20 minutes. Preheat oven to 210ºC. Bake for 30 minutes.

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Legendary Dishes | Cappelletti in Brodo (small savoury parcels in beef broth)

SAN MARINO 

Broth

  • 3 litres water
  • 1 kg beef chuck / neck, cut into pieces
  • 1 kg veal bones
  • 500 g beef bones with marrow
  • 500 onions, chopped
  • 125 g carrot, chopped
  • 12 parsley stalks
  • 2 celery stalks Seasonings

Filling

  • 125 g pecorino cheese, grated
  • 2 eggs
  • 100 g chicken breast, cubed
  • 100 g pork loin, cubed
  • 50 g pork belly, cubed small
  • 50 g prosciutto ham, cut into pieces
  • 2 garlic cloves
  • 4 rosemary spears
  • 4 sage leaves
  • Nutmeg, very large pinch
  • Seasonings

Pasta

  • 300 g white durum wheat flour, t00
  • 3-4 eggs

For the broth place all ingredients in a large pot with sufficient water to cover, gradually bring to a rolling boil. Remove scum that rises to the surface, reduce heat and simmer for three hours, strain (use about 350 ml per diner), freeze the unused broth, keep the meat for other uses. Pour flour onto a clean work surface, break eggs into the centre of the flour, work with a fork into a loose dough. Roll into a ball, set aside, covered, for 30 minutes. Sauté pork belly in a hot frying pan until the fat is released, add garlic, pork loin and chicken. Add the rosemary and sage, sauté for two minutes, leave to cool. Spoon this mixture into a bowl, add the prosciutto, pecorino, nutmeg, eggs and seasonings. Blend in a food processor, taste and adjust seasoning. Form the mixture into small balls about the size of a teaspoon. On a floured surface roll out and then stretch the dough thin. Using a glass with a 6 cm diameter cut rounds in the dough. Place the balls in the centre of the rounds, fold over, seal and twist edges together to form little hats (cappelletti). Heat the broth, add cappelletti and bring to a boil, cook for five minutes until it rises to the surface.

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LEGENDARY DISHES

European Culinary Connections | Meat Rolls

ITALY LATVIA LITHUANIA
PorkRoll
Breaded Pork Roll

Cūkgaļas Rulete – 1

  • 2 kg pork belly / shoulder with skin
  • 200 g mushrooms, quartered, sliced
  • 150 g onions, chopped
  • 100 g carrots, grated
  • 1 tsp black pepper, freshly ground
  • 1 tsp chilli flakes
  • 1 tsp paprika flakes
  • 1 tsp coarse sea salt
  • 1 tsp thyme
  • Salt, large pinch
  • Oil, for frying Thread, for tying

Preheat oven to 200°C.

Sauté onions in oil over a medium heat for ten minutes, add mushroom, cook until they wilt and residue liquid has evaporated. Leave to cool.

Cut a third of the skin from the pork, set aside.

Score skin into 2cm strips.

Turn pork onto its skin side and beat out the meat without the skin, season with chilli, paprika, pepper and salt.

Spread carrots over the central area, followed by the mushroom-onion mixture, season with pepper and thyme.

Roll the pork tightly starting with the end without skin, secure with four ties.

Sprinkle coarse salt on skin, pushing into the cracks.

Roast for 25 minutes, turn down down 175°C for 50 minutes, turn heat up to 190°C for 30 minutes.

Rest for 30 minutes before slicing.

Serve with mashed potatoes.


Cūkgaļas Rulete – 2

  • 2 kg pork shoulder
  • 200 g sweet pepper, chopped
  • 150 g onions, chopped
  • 100 g carrots, grated
  • 50 g prunes, stoned, chopped
  • 1 tsp black pepper, freshly ground
  • 1 tsp chilli flakes
  • 1 tsp paprika flakes
  • Salt, large pinch
  • Oil, for frying
  • Thread, for tying

Flatten shoulder into a long wide rectangular shape, season with chillies, paprika, pepper and salt.

Sauté onions in oil over a medium heat for 15 minutes, add peppers and cook for five minutes until soft.

Combine onion-pepper mix with carrots and prunes. Spread on meat, roll tightly, secure with four ties.

Simmer roll in broth for three hours.

Take out and leave to rest for 30 minutes, remove string, cut into slices.


Involtini di Vitello alla Milanese

Stock

  • 750 ml water
  • 150 g carrots
  • 150 g onions
  • 30 g peperoncino
  • 15 g black peppercorns
  • 1 sprig rosemary
  • 4 sprigs thyme

Filling

  • 100 g chicken / veal liver, chopped finely
  • 60 g pecorino, grated
  • 1 egg yolk
  • 25 g parsley, chopped finely
  • 3 garlic cloves, crushed, chopped small
  • 15 g black pepper, freshly ground

Rolls

  • 8 (x 60 g) small veal escalopes, flattened
  • 600 ml spicy broth
  • 8 slices prosciutto
  • 8 sage leaves
  • Black pepper, pinch
  • Salt, pinch
  • Butter, for frying
  • Flour, for dusting
  • Oil, for frying

Boil then simmer carrots, onions, peperoncino and peppercorns in water for two hours, strain and keep warm.

Mix the egg yolk, garlic, parsley, pecorino, liver and pepper into a thick paste.

Season escalopes, spread with filling.

Roll, then wrap with a slice of prosciutto, placing a sage leaf between the ham and veal.

Dust in flour, set aside.

Gently heat butter and oil in a wide saucepan.

Sauté the rolls in the butter-oil, browning all sides.

Deglaze saucepan with broth, add rosemary and thyme.

Cover and poach over a low heat for 20 minutes.


Veršienos Suktinukai

  • 4 veal fillets
  • 250 g cottage cheese
  • 30 g almonds, crushed
  • 20 g butter
  • 15 g mayonnaise
  • 3 garlic cloves, crushed
  • 1 tsp black pepper, freshly ground
  • 1 tsp salt
  • 1 tsp parsley, chopped
  • 1 egg, beaten
  • Breadcrumbs
  • Oil, for frying

Lay a fillet on a clean work surface, place a sheet of clingfilm on top and using a roller gently beat the fillet to flatten it, repeat the action.

Season flattened fillets, and spread each one with a half teaspoon of mayonnaise.

Leave for 30 minutes in the fridge.

Crush cheese in a large bowl, add butter, garlic and parsley, season with salt and mix thoroughly.

Spread the cheese mixture on the fillets, sprinkle almonds on top and twist into rolls.

Put the egg in a wide soup plate, the breadcrumbs in another.

Preheat oven to 190°C.

Dip a rolled fillet in the egg, then the breadcrumbs, repeat and set aside.

Over a medium heat brown the fillets.

Place fillets on a greased baking tray.

Bake for 20 minutes.



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Ingredient | Beef | Veal

HornedCow-low-res

The quality of beef varies considerably across Europe, so much that artisan production favours a slower approach to the raising and slaughtering of animals.

Traditional dishes made from beef cuts rely on good meat, to the extent that it is no longer expedient to dispose of bad meat in soups and stews, and especially in dishes that call for ground and minced meat.

The rule is that hindquarter cuts (fillet, flank, loin, round, rump, sirloin, silverside, steak, tranche) provide the best meat for fast cooking. Forequarter cuts (blade, brisket, chuck, neck, plate, rib, rolled rib, shin) are used for slow cooking.

Good beef should be well matured, firm to the touch, bright red, marbled and fat-scored, and give off a sweet aroma.

It should come from animals that have been allowed to graze on natural grasses and herbs, and have not been slaughtered at less than 36 months old, later if possible.

Ground and minced meat should be lean with a minimum of fat.

Stewing beef can come from the leg, neck and shank.

Beef for roasting will be fillet, loin, rolled rib and rump.

Steak meat generally will be sirloin.

Recipes that call for thin slices of meat to be fried, grilled or baked ideally should come from the much younger animal, which is the tradition in most central and southern European countries, especially in Italy.

This is veal, which comes from calves slaughtered between six and eleven months old, particularly from milk-fed, hormone-free animals. If they have been put on a special diet the veal will be of a high quality. It will be pinkish with white fat and smell milky.

Many of the classic traditional dishes of Europe are made with veal.

Escalopes, used in Cordon Bleu, Fleischgeschnetzeltes und Champignonrahnsause and Schnitzel, should come from the fillet, hind leg, loin, lower neck and rump, preferably the top end of the hind leg.

In south-eastern Europe and the Balkans veal is preferred in stews that require less cooking time.

 

Espetada Madeirense

 

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Arouquesa Beef

The Portuguese take the quality of their beef very seriously, to the extent that it might be considered the best in Europe.

The Barrosa, Maronesa and Mirandesa breeds raised in the Barroso marshes produce a dark red meat that is succulent and tender, while beef from the Alentejana and Arouquesa breeds is perfect for the types of meat dishes the Portuguese covet.

One such dish is so popular it is attracting food lovers to the Madeira archipelago. Yet it is nothing more than skewered cubes of beef coated in crushed bay, garlic and sea salt grilled over hot embers.

Nothing more?

Nothing less than mature loin meat cut into 4 cm cubes.

Nothing less than fresh garlic.

Nothing less than unblemished bay leaves.

Nothing less than flôr de sal.

And nothing less than a smokeless fire (or a hot grill)!

 

1 kg beef fillet/loin/sirloin, cubed
3 garlic bulbs, crushed
10 g flôr de sal or coarse sea salt
10 bay leaves, crushed
Olive oil

 

Coat the cubes in the oil, followed by the bay and garlic. Pierce the cubes with a metal skewer or, if available, a sharp bay stick.

Spread the salt on a plate and roll the skewered meat in the salt.

Suspend the skewers over a hot fire, made with seasoned wood, or under a hot grill on a tray to collect the juices.

When the meat starts to brown, turn and repeat until a crust has formed, about ten minutes depending on the heat.

Shake off the salt, serve with a salad and piri piri sauce or with roasted vegetables.

 

Cordon Bleu

 

Cordon Bleu, breaded veal steak with cheese and ham, is one of Switzerland’s iconic dishes, insanely popular with the Swiss since the mid-1900s.

Wrapping a thin slice of meat with cheese and ham is an idea that was developed in different regions of Europe at different times.

The Swiss generously don’t wish to claim it as one of their own, content to believe its beginnings are old, and varied.

One version suggests a Brig chef found his restaurant filled to the brim one lunchtime. With only enough meat to feed half the hungry hoards he improvised.

He cut a veal loin into sixty pieces, created a cheese and ham envelope, breaded and fried them, astounding the guests with this new dish.

Centuries later its popularity continues to increase, selling upwards of 10,000 tons each year in Switzerland, preserving its status as a blue ribbon food.

 

520 g (8 x 65 g) veal, topside of leg
4 slices (4 x 40 g) ham
4 slices (4 x 60 g) Emmenthal/Gruyère
60 g flour
100 g breadcrumbs
1 egg
15 ml clarified butter
Salt, pinch
Pepper, pinch
2 lemons, quartered

Preheat oven to 80°C.

Cut veal into eight equal pieces. Take a piece of cling film, place over a cutlet and with a baking roller flatten it, about 2-3mm thin, season with salt and pepper.

Cut ham and cheese into slices that will sit inside each cutlet, trimmed if necessary, they must not overlap. Top the filling with another cutlet, pound the edges together.

Brush with some of the beaten egg to complete the seal.

Gently dust each cutlet with flour, dip in egg and coat with breadcrumbs.

Brown in butter, four minutes each side, transfer to ovenproof dish keeping them separate, bake for 15 minutes.

Serve with French fries or boiled potatoes, green salad and two lemon wedges per person.

 

Saltimbocca

 

Always associated with Rome, this is another interpretation on the veal-ham theme, the sage an exquisite touch. Make sure the leaves are fresh and pale green young.

 

480 g veal, loin or lean piece
16 slices prosciutto
16 sage leaves
1 tsp black pepper, freshly ground
Butter, for frying
Olive oil, for frying
White wine, for finishing (optional)

 

Cut the veal into 30 g pieces, flatten, season and place one sage leaf on each piece.

Lay a slice of prosciutto on top of the veal, roll tightly and secure with a toothpick.

Melt the butter with the oil in a wide frying pan over a medium heat, sauté until each roll is golden brown.

For a different twist on veal rolls see Involtini di Vitello alla Milanese in Latvia.

 

Veau Marengo

 

Chef Dunand’s original creation for Napoleon Bonaparte after the battle of Marengo involved a jointed chicken fried in oil, finished in a sauce made with brandy, garlic, tomatoes and water.

Over the years the sauce became synonymous with sieved tomatoes, white wine replaced brandy, mushrooms and onions were added, and veal joined chicken as the choice of meat.

Cubes of shoulder veal flash-fried in hot oil and simmered in Marengo sauce give this dish a distinctive flavour.

 

1 kg veal, shoulder, cubed
500 g mushrooms, chopped
500 g tomato passata
450 g onions, chopped
400 ml water
125 ml olive oil, for frying
50 ml brandy/white wine
45 g flour
5 g fresh oregano, whole leaves
1 tsp black pepper, freshly ground
Mixed pepper, large pinch
Salt, pinch

 

In a deep, wide saucepan fry onion in half of the oil, sauté over low heat until brown, about 20 minutes.

Sprinkle with flour, add water, passata, seasonings and half of the oregano, reduce over a medium heat for 20 minutes, until the sauce is thick.

Brown veal in stages in remaining oil, add to sauce, deglaze pan with brandy or wine and add to sauce, cover, simmer over a low heat for 30 minutes.

Add mushrooms, cover again, cook for 15 minutes.

Cut remaining oregano, stir into sauce.

 

Vitello Tonnato

Pellegrino Artusi refers to a method where the anchovy, caper and tuna sauce that is the essential element of this cold dish becomes a marinade, infusing the sliced cooked veal with pungent flavours.

 

1 kg veal, rump, whole
3 carrots, peeled, whole
3 parsley roots, scrubbed, whole
3 stalks celery, whole
1 onion, peeled, whole
100 g tinned tuna, minced
2 lemons, juice
50 ml olive oil
25 g capers, minced
8 anchovy fillets
4 cloves
2 bay leaves
Salt, large pinch
Water, for cooking
String, for tying

Make four deep cuts in the centre of the veal, push an anchovy into each one, tie meat together.

Stud onion with cloves.

Place the veal in a large saucepan with the bay leaves, carrots, celery, onion, parsley and salt, cover with sufficient water and bring to the boil.

Simmer covered for 45 minutes, until meat is tender, soft to the touch and not tough.

When the veal has cooled, untie the string and cut into thin slices.

Mince the remaining anchovies with the capers and tuna, pour in the lemon juice and olive oil to make a thin sauce. Use as much oil as necessary.

Serve the veal with the tuna sauce, with soft white bread.

Alternatively marinade the meat in the sauce for eight hours, bring up to room temperature, then serve.

Salsa Tonnata is another version of this sauce.

 

Farshirovannaja Teljatina

 

If Cordon Bleu is typically Swiss, Farshirovannaja Teljatina is typically Russian.

Stuffed veal dishes in Russia cross the gamut of traditional food.

This is a small loaf, made with an egg, garlic, minced meat and spinach stuffing.

 

1 kg veal, fillet
200 g pork mince
200 g spinach, whole leaves
200 ml vegetable stock
150 g beef mince
100 ml white wine 
1 egg, beaten
2 cloves garlic, crushed, chopped
25 g black pepper, freshly ground
Salt, large pinch
Sunflower oil, for greasing
String, for tying

 

Boil the spinach in sufficient water to cover until it wilts, about three minutes, leave to cool, then chop into a purée.

Preheat oven to 200°C.

Combine the minced meat in a bowl, work with hands until the fat begins to separate. Add garlic and spinach, stir in the egg, season.

Flatten veal into a long rectangular shape, spread with meat-spinach mixture, roll tightly and fasten with four ties.

Grind black pepper onto a clean work surface, roll loaf in the pepper until it is even coated.

Grease a baking tray, fill with stock and wine, place loaf in the liquid and bake for an hour.

 

Traditional Beef and Veal Dishes

 

Swiss Air-Dried Beef

Carbonnades Flamandes/Stoofvlees-Beef (Belguim, France, Luxembourg, Netherlands)

Ćevapčići (Serbia)

Jautienos Suktinukai (Lithuania)

Roast Beef with Yorkshire Pudding (England)

Slavinken (Netherlands)


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[PLACE] SAINT GALLEN | SWITZERLAND | St. Galler Bratwurst (St. Gallen Milk Pork Sausage)

St-Galler-Bratwurst

The butchers‘ guild of St. Gallen in 1438 noted that the country bratwürst was made with veal, belly pork, spices and fresh milk, and had a distinctive white colour.

Today the St. Galler bratwürst is a white unsmoked sausage made with veal, pork, spices and milk.

Why change a good thing? 

This unique sausage is produced in the cantons of Appenzell, St. Gallen and Thurgau with meat and milk from Switzerland and Liechtenstein. 

Throughout its history it has been made with and without veal, an unthinkable thought to those who cherish a bratwürst that is now an integral aspect of Swiss festival culture. The year 2013 was the 70th anniversary of the St. Galler bratwürst at the Olma agricultural fair. More than half a million bratwürst went on the grill. Many were eaten on their own, some with the brown rolls called bürli and not a spoonful of mustard in sight. 

They are difficult to make in the home because the technique requires equipment that will produce a fine emulsion of the meat, milk and spices. But not impossible.

  • 370 g veal, minced
  • 260 g bacon, minced
  • 150 ml milk
  • 100 g pork, minced
  • 25 g pork belly rind, chopped
  • 1 celery stalk, chopped
  • 1 onion, chopped
  • 15 g salt
  • 1 tsp coriander, ground
  • 1 tsp ginger, ground
  • 1 tsp lemon zest
  • 1 tsp nutmeg, ground
  • 1 tsp white pepper, ground
  • Mace, large pinch
  • Pork casings
  • Ice, crushed

Blend the celery, onions and rinds in milk until smooth, add minced meat and blend again. Adjust liquid content with some ice, add seasonings and blend again. This should produce a thick smooth paste.

Pack into casings, 25 mm long, and place in a large pot of boiling water. Cook for 30 minutes. The desired internal temperature of the bratwürst should be 72°C.

Prepare a pot of ice cold water. Plunge bratwürst into water to cool down. Hang until dry.

The St. Galler bratwürst should contain 37% veal, 26% bacon, 10% pork and 27% bulk, of which 25% must be milk, wet or dry. Mace and pepper are mandatory, but other spices can include a combination of cardamom, celery, coriander, ginger, leek, lemon, nutmeg and onion.


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