Tag: Fishes of Europe

Legendary Dishes | Chaudrée Saintongeaise (chowder of Saintonge)


This chowder is different because the fish is cooked in a langoustine bisque. Some versions use a fish stock but the bisque gives it a distinct flavour. We combined hake and mackerel, and added the stock from the mackerel heads and bones to get a concentrated flavour.

  • 1.5 kg assorted fish (from cuttlefish, gurnard, hake, mackerel, red mullet, skate), cut into equal-sized pieces, marinated in fish sauce for several hours)
  • 1.5 litres langoustine bisque
  • 1.5 kg potatoes, cut into 1 cm dice
  • 150 g onions, chopped small
  • 100 ml cognac
  • 45 ml fish sauce
  • 30 ml olive oil
  • 2 garlic cloves, crushed

Cook the potatoes. Sauté the garlic and onions in the oil over a medium heat for ten minutes. Bring the bisque to the boil. Deglaze garlic and onions with cognac, pour into the bisque pot. Add the fish and cook at a high heat for 5 minutes. Add the potatoes, cook for a few minutes, then serve.

Legendary Dishes | Wild Salmon Bake


Men with Carrick-a-Rede salmon at Ballycastle in 1962

Irish wild salmon have benefitted hugely from Ireland’s cleaner rivers and now that they are protected there are less of these majestic fish on the open market.

This is a traditional method for cooking fresh salmon.

The oil from the nuts permeates the fish during baking, producing a sweet aromatic flavour.

  • 1 (3 kg) salmon, whole, gutted, head and tail left on
  • 150 g onions, chopped
  • 75 g hazelnuts, chopped
  • 75 g parsley, chopped
  • 30 ml (approximately) water
  • 60 g butter
  • 10 g black pepper, freshly ground
  • 10 g salt
  • Foil

Preheat oven to 230°C.

Blend the nuts, onions, parsley and water to make a purée, adding the water gradually. It should be a thick purée.

Rub the salmon all over with the butter, season liberally.

Stuff the purée into the gullet.

Wrap the salmon loosely in foil, making sure the ends are sealed, place in a large baking tray, cover with more foil.

Bake at 200°C for 65 minutes.

Remove top layer of foil, and slowly move the salmon out of the second layer onto the tray without breaking it.

Baste with juices and bake for 15 minutes.

Serve with mashed buttered potatoes, garnished with parsley.

Indigenous Ingredients


Legendary Dishes | Mackerel and Potatoes


Pan-fried fresh mackerel and whole, boiled potatoes – the old favourite, when you can get it.

Mackerel are capricious. Fishers have always known this. From Dinish to Cape Clear and around to Garinish, mackerel have defined the lives of coastal communities for countless centuries.

Stephen Crane, an American writer who visited Cape Clear in the last years of the 1800s, described the life.

The mackerel, beautiful as fire-etched salvers, were passed to a long table. Each woman could clean a fish with two motions of the knife. Then the washers, men who stood over the troughs filled with running water from the brook, soused the fish …

… the fish were carried to a group of girls with knives, who made the cuts that enabled each fish to flatten out in the manner known of the breakfast table. “After the girls came the men and boys, who rubbed each fish thoroughly with great handfuls of coarse salt, whiter than snow, which shone in the daylight, diamond-like.

Last came the packers, drilled in the art of getting neither too few nor too many mackerel into a barrel, sprinkling constantly prodigal layers of brilliant salt.

In the early 1930s the mackerel disappeared completely. When they returned, the knowledge that had been passed down led the fishers to the fish.

‘The old fishermen always knew the best geographical points to go to to get the mackerel,’ says Mitey McNally, a Garinish fisher, recalling the days when they were plenty. ‘If they weren’t there you’d see the fowls in the water and you’d chase over towards them.’

The fishers used fixed nets anchored to stalls on the seabed at specific points up to 30 feet deep. When the mackerel moved they ran straight into these nets, the force of the fish lifting the nets out of the water.

‘It was a great sight in the morning at dawn when the fish would start to move,’ says Mitey. ‘We caught the fish with netting with a three inch mesh, which ensured all the small mackerel went though it so we caught only the prime fish, the big fine fat mackerel.’

An increasing demand for mackerel was soon met by people who wanted to make big money. Unlike the Garinish fishers whose livelihoods depended on the mackerel, entrepreneurs launched large factory ships and sent them in search of the mackerel in the open sea.

‘Two of these super trawlers would catch in one night what would keep a community as large as this whole parish going for the year,’ says Mitey.

The market for mackerel collapsed in the early 1980s.

These days the mackerel come and go and then when they arrive a few intrepid souls around the coast smoke them for local consumption. The days of salting mackerel are long gone. Canned mackerel was never an Irish thing, despite an attempt to get the people to buy it.

During the summer of 2015 Irish Fish Canners of Dungloe in western Donegal launched their smoked mackerel Irish Atlantic range and one of these days we will tell you their story.

In the meantime, if you can find some fresh mackerel and some good floury potatoes, this is the dish!

  • 2 kg potatoes, whole
  • 1.2 kg (8) mackerel, whole, gutted, filleted
  • 80 g butter, for potatoes
  • 80 g butter, for mackerel
  • Seasonings
  • Water, for potatoes

Boil potatoes in their skins. Coat the mackerel with butter and grill (on foil), about five minutes each side or pan-fry in butter with a splash of vegetable oil. Serve on warm plates, with a knob of butter on each potato.

Alternatively get hold of some of the Irish Atlantic peppered smoked mackerel in oil, and serve several cans with mashed  potatoes.


Smoked Mackerel

Legendary Dishes | Langouste Grillée (grilled crawfish)


Antony Batt O’Sullivan of Allihies once made a living catching crawfish off the south-west coast of Ireland, but while the lobster has survived the crawfish is harder to find, and most crawfish sold in Europe is imported from India.

They are needed because grilled crawfish is still very popular, especially in France.

Crawfish with a total weight of 17 kilograms fetched fifty three pounds in the old Irish money in 1974

  • 600 g crawfish
  • 30 ml olive oil
  • 10 g black pepper
  • 5 g salt

With a sharp knife cut the crawfish along their length, remove digestive tract and brown material.

Season lavishly, drizzle with olive oil, leave to marinade for 30 minutes.

Cook under a very hot grill for five minutes.

Serve with the cooking juices.

Indigenous Ingredients


Legendary Dishes | Merluza a la Gallega (hake with garlic and potatoes)


Another Galician twist on hake, this recipe is featured in Catch of the Day | As Fresh As It Gets, Editions Fricot’s European fish book.

  • 4 (250 g) hake steaks, each 4 cm thick
  • 800 ml water
  • 600 g waxy potatoes, peeled, sliced thick
  • 4 garlic cloves, crushed
  • 100 ml olive oil
  • 5 g hot paprika
  • Salt
  • Paprika oil, for dressing (optional)
  • Chilli sauce (optional)

Salt the hake, and leave them to rest for 30 minutes, then wash off the salt.

Place the potato slices in an oiled casserole dish, add the garlic, cover with
water, and cook in a hot oven for 20 minutes.

Dust the hake steaks with paprika.

In a large frying pan heat the oil, and fry the hake, about two minutes each side.

Remove to the casserole dish and finish in the oven, about five

Drain the liquid from the casserole, reduce and serve as a sauce with the hake and potatoes.

Or drizzle chilli sauce or paprika oil over the fish.

Indigenous Ingredients


Legendary Dishes | Steikt Ýsa í Raspi (pan-fried haddock)


The eponymous breaded haddock fillets, one of Iceland’s most popular traditional dishes.

  • 800 g (4) haddock fillets
  • 100 g breadcrumbs
  • 1 egg
  • 30 g flour
  • 25 g butter
  • 15 ml milk
  • 15 ml sunflower oil
  • 1 lemon, quartered
  • Seasonings, large pinch
  • Parsley, chopped, for garnish

Sieve flour onto large plate, season.

Place breadcrumbs on large plate.

Break egg into a shallow bowl and whisk with milk.

Dust fillet with seasoned flour, dip in egg-milk mixture, coat in breadcrumbs.

Press breadcrumbs into fillet.

Repeat with remaining fillets.

Double-dip and breadcrumb fillets if any egg-milk and breadcrumbs are left.

Heat butter and oil in a large frying pan over medium heat.

Fry fillets, three or four minutes each side depending on thickness.

Serve with lemon and parsley, and potatoes.

Indigenous Ingredients


Legendary Dishes | Potted Cromer Crab


The good people of the north Norfolk coast in the east of England treat this
delicious crab with the respect it deserves. The smokehouse in Cley and Jonas Seafood in Cromer sell dressed crab and lobster meat.

And if you find yourself with some of this delicious meat follow the general tradition, and soften it with cream diluted in juice or wine, add something tangy and something spicy, then pot it.

  • 500 g crabmeat
  • 300 g unsalted butter
  • 90 g butter, for clarifying*
  • 90 g sour cream / crème fraîche
  • 30 ml lemon juice / white wine
  • 2 lemons, zest
  • 10 g paprika powder
  • Nutmeg, large pinch
  • Salt, pinch
  • White pepper, pinch

Melt the butter in a frying pan over a low heat, add zest and paprika, remove from heat.

Whisk cream and juice or wine into a froth.

Stir crab meat into the spiced butter, place in a bowl and allow to cool, then fold in the frothy cream, season.

Spoon into earthenware pots or ramekins.

Clarify remaining butter, pour over potted crab to seal in the flavour.

Chill in refridgerator for two or three hours.

Traditionally served with hot toast.

*This stage can be omitted if the potted crab is to be eaten after it has chilled. Cover each pot or ramekin with foil.

Indigenous Ingredients


Condiments | Hummersås (lobster sauce)


Galway Bay fisher Micheal O’Connell with two of his prized lobsters, about to be shipped to France

Swedish lobster sauce was traditionally made using a seasoned sweet roux, cream, milk, egg yolks and pieces of lobster meat, and finished with lemon juice.

Gradually the recipe changed to include the French method (made with a white wine fish fumet and lobster butter, omitting the roux) and then onions or shallots, tomatoes and assorted vegetables.

Fish and concentrated lobster stock was used to make a stronger sauce, and lobster meat was excluded.

This combines the French and Swedish methods.

  • 1 lobster
  • 500 ml brandy
  • 500 ml cream
  • 500 ml + 60 ml white wine
  • 100 g shallots, chopped
  • 30 g lobster butter (000)
  • 30 butter
  • 5 g cayenne pepper
  • Seasonings

Preheat oven to 200°C.

Boil lobster, remove meat, remove to refrigerator, crush shells.

Roast shells in oven for 20 minutes.

Sauté shallots in butter for ten minutes, add brandy, wine and shells, simmer for an hour, strain.

Whip cream, put in a large pot with four tablespoons of wine, bring to the boil, season and add lobster stock. Add cayenne and reduce. Finish with lobster butter.

If a creamy sauce is needed serve without adding lobster meat.

If adding the meat, heat in the sauce for five minutes.

Legendary Dishes | Mussels with Butter, Garlic and White Wine


Another in-shore fruit of the sea caught by the Irish and sold to the French, who, like their Belgian and Flemish neighbours, eat it daily in countless variations.

Still, it is hard to beat a large bowl of steamed flavoured mussels sitting outside an Irish pub overlooking the wild Atlantic – in the warmer weather of course!

  • 2 kg mussels, cleaned
  • 350 ml white wine
  • 1 bulb garlic, cloves finely chopped
  • 45 g butter
  • 10 g black pepper, coarsely ground
  • 2 bay leaves

Sauté garlic in butter in a large deep pot over a low heat for 20 minutes, without letting it brown.

Pour in the wine followed by the bay leaves and black pepper. Bring to the boil, add mussels.

Cover the pot, cook over a high heat, shaking the pot occasionally to redistribute the mussels, until they are all open.

Discard any that are closed.

Strain the liquid, pass through a sieve, into a saucepan, reduce, season.

Serve the mussels with the sauce, and chunks of country bread on the side.

Indigenous Ingredients


Legendary Dishes | Bretlinu Omlete (sprat omelette)


The sprat population of the Baltic sea has remained stable despite successive catches of 300,000 tonnes in the late 2010s and fears of a collapse of the entire eco-system have been allayed for now.

An annual plan was put in place in 2016 to manage sprat numbers in conjunction with cod and herring. The Baltic cod fishery is under pressure and, as cod prey on their pelagic relatives, over fishing of the sprat population would be detrimental to the dwindling cod.

Sprats have become the dominant fish in the Baltic amidst continuing climate change which may yet impact the eco-system.

In the meantime the sprat is as popular as ever, an essential ingredient in the traditional dishes of Estonia, Finland, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland and Russia.

  • 800 g smoked sprats
  • 12 eggs
  • 300 g cherry tomatoes, halved
  • 4 tbsp vegetable oil
  • 12 sprigs parsley, chopped
  • 1 tbsp dill, chopped
  • 1 tsp black pepper
  • Salt, large pinches

Whisk three of the eggs. Heat a large frying pan with a tablespoon of oil, add a quarter of the sprats, then the whisked eggs.

Cook until the eggs are done, garnish with dill and parsley, season with salt and pepper, serve with tomatoes.

Repeat the process with remaining ingredients, to serve a total of 4 people.

Indigenous Ingredients


Legendary Dishes | Paling in‘t Groen (eels in green sauce)


In Flanders eel is served with a green sauce made with fresh river herbs and wild leaf vegetables, one or more of a choice from chervil, sorrel, spinach, watercress and wild garlic leaves. The sauce should be aromatic and not too thick.

  • 1 kg eel, cut into 5 cm pieces
  • 1 litre fish stock
  • 300 g green herbs / vegetables, chopped small
  • 25 g butter
  • 25 g flour
  • 1 lemon, juice
  • 1 mint sprig
  • 1 parsley sprig
  • Salt, pinch
  • Black pepper, freshly ground, pinch

Poach eel in stock over a low heat for 15 minutes.

Make a light roux, add 350 millilitres of stock, bring to the boil, add greens, lemon juice and seasonings, reduce heat and cook for five minutes.

For a thinner sauce use a little more stock.

Coat the eel pieces with the sauce, garnish with mint and parsley.

Serve with fries.

Indigenous Ingredients

Wild Garlic

Legendary Dishes | Gerookte Paling (smoked eels)


Every year between May and October, DHL ship boxes of live eels packed in ice from Belfast International Airport to Heathrow and Schipol, sent by the Lough Neagh Fishermen’s Co-operative Society in Toome.

It is mid-morning and the fish shop on West-Kruiskade in the centre of Rotterdam is selling out of smoked eels. The demand these days always seems to exceed the supply. Lovers of this treat are worried.

Pat Close of the Lough Neagh Fishers insists they have nothing to worry about. He sends the same message out to those who have been predicting the end of the Lough Neagh eel fishery and others like it.

Toome-born into a farming background, Close gave up a good job as an advisor in the Department of Argiculture, accepting the call of the eels. They needed help and he was ready to give it.

Like everyone in the area of Lough Neagh he knew about the crash. Two years before he joined the coop, the young eels migrating along the Gulf Stream from the Sargasso Sea off the coast of Florida didn’t turn up.

After years of between eight and fifteen million eels coming into the Bann at Coleraine every year, the number was down to 726,000. It was a global problem. Every estuary in Europe that attracted eels saw a decline.

To alleviate the problems caused by the crash, the coop started buying young eels from other fisheries. ‘Lough Neagh is a commercial fishery being exploited, not over exploited, and in order to maintain the intensity we need to maintain that stock, not only would that affect our business it would have an impact on the eels stock of Europe.’

‘If we weren’t here the eels would be depleted, this is a finite resource and needs to be managed. We let 40% go back to the Sargasso Sea.’

The real issue, Close insists, is local. No new fishing licences have been issued for 20 years and this presents Close with a conundrum. At its peak there were 200 boats licenced to go out on the lough, now there are 113. A hundred on the lough is the limit and will remain so while eel stocks are low.

Because the costs of running a boat is high, the fishing has remained with the families who have the tradition, passing from father to son. This knowledge base and the skills that go with it, Close acknowledges, are the key to the future of eel fishing on Lough Neagh.

With a turnover of £3m a year, the vast majority going into the communities around the lough, he knows the fishers and the fish must be sustained. And with the fishers getting older, Close wants to see younger people involved but fears the seasonal nature of the work and the long days are a deterent.

‘They go out after 4am, all out together, they look after each other, a couple of hours to lift the lines, grade out the young eels, back in for 7-7.30, into the coop at 8.30, and go out at midday again, to continue a couple of hours, running lines, quite a long day, and I would like to see more young people in it.’

In the Netherlands they hope so too. They know what Close knows.
‘Lough Neagh eels are unique, the flesh is perfect for smoking, which is why they are regarded as the best in Europe.’

An oily fish rich with omega 3, the Dutch eat more smoked eel than fresh eel. They only smoke the fatter fish, because it tastes better, which is why they covet Irish eels and are worried that one day they will be gone. This is a typical dressing for smoked eel.

This is a typical dressing for smoked eel.

  • Smoked eels
  • 1 small cucumber, chopped
  • 60 ml olive oil
  • 15 ml soy sauce
  • Half a lemon, juiced
  • 2 tablespoons basil, torn
  • 6 blades of chive, chopped
  • Black pepper, pinch
  • Salt, pinch

Legendary Dishes | Fofos de Bacalhau (cod puffins)

  • 500 g salt cod, soaked for 24 hours in 12 changes of water
  • 400 ml water
  • 4 egg whites
  • 45 g white wheat flour
  • 45 ml milk
  • 15 ml olive oil
  • Vegetable oil, for frying
  • Seasonings

Put the cod into the water, bring to the boil, simmer for three minutes. Drain and retain water.

Make a loose batter with the milk, olive oil, adding and whisking the flour slowly. Adjust with some of the cod water.

Whisk in the egg whites.

Heat a pot or deep frier with vegetable oil to 190°C.

Cut cod into 3 cm pieces, dip in batter.

Deep fry.

Dry on kitchen paper.

Serve with tomato rice.

Indigenous Ingredients

Salt Cod

Legendary Dishes | Bolinhos de Bacalhau (fish balls)

  • 1 kg salt cod, soaked for 48 hours in 12 changes of fresh water
  • 650 g potatoes, baked, mashed
  • 4 eggs, beaten
  • 100 g onions, chopped
  • 50 g parsley, chopped
  • 30 ml olive oil
  • 6 cloves garlic, crushed
  • 25 g cilantro, chopped
  • 15 g cayenne pepper
  • Black pepper, large pinch
  • Olive oil, for frying
  • Vegetable oil, for deep frying


4 lemons, quartered
50 g piri piri sauce


Small bowl filled with water

Place stockfish in a large pot with sufficient water to cover, bring to a low boil, simmer for 15 minutes, drain. Flake when cold, removing skin and bones. Shred in a food processor.

Combine cod and potatoes in a large bowl, knead for five minutes.

Sauté onions in olive oil in a frying pan over a medium heat for five minutes.

Add garlic, sauté for a further five minutes, until garlic and onions are soft.

Stir into the cod-potato mixture.

Add the cilantro and parsley, mix, then fold in the eggs.

Season with cayenne, salt and pepper.

Weigh 50 grams of the mixture, shape into balls using a wet hand.

Heat a pot or deep frier with vegetable oil to 190°C.

Deep fry balls until golden brown, about five minutes.

Drain on paper towels.

Serve with lemon wedges and piri piri sauce.

Indigenous Ingredients

Piri Piri Sauce
Salt Cod

Legendary Dishes | Coquilles Saint-Jacques au Sauce (scallops with sauce)


Scallops in a pesto sauce with linquine.

From late October until mid-December every year the coastline of Calvados comes alive to the enigmatic sound of the great shell. The Festival of the Saint-Jacques Scallop Shell in Ouistreham and the Taste of the Sea at Port-en-Bessin are two of the highlights amidst numerous events along the Normandy coast.

The great scallop Saint-Jacques is a sustainable species and the fishers of the region want to keep it that way. They adhere to a strict regime that allows some areas to remain fallow to allow the creatures to reproduce and grow.

In 2018, when French and British boats clashed, the quote for French fishers in French terroritial water was 1800 kilos a day for a boat of 15 meters, 2000 kilos a day for a boat between 15 and 16 meters and 2200 kilos a day for more than 16 meters.

The French consume up 20,000 tonnes a year of the Saint-Jacques scallop, of which half are caught by Normandy fishers.

In 2002, in response to new World Trade Organisation regulations that did not distinquish between the sizes and varieties of scallops, Normandie Fraîcheur Mer obtained a ‘Red Label’ for their Coquilles Saint-Jacques. Dimitri Rogoff, a fisher of Port-en-Bessin and president of Normandie Fraîcheur Mer, said it was ‘the only way to get a quality recognised superior product of our fishery’. In 2009 the label was upgraded. Fisher Claude Beaufils said the label recognised the quality of his work, and the need to return quickly to port to guarantee the freshness and organoleptic superiority of the product.

The Label Rouge requires the shell to be fished at maturity (the size greater than or equal to 11 centimetres which corresponds to a minimum age of two years). The shell must be clean and intact (neither broken nor chipped, neither loose, nor split) and must be able to conserve water to survive. Boxes of shells are numbered and labelled to ensure traceability to the fishing boat and date of fishing.

‘Now, with the Label Rouge, we know what we have bought. For the nuts, it makes all the difference,’ said Frédéric Chevallet, director at Lequertier, a company that markets the unique scallops of Normandy. The arrival of Label Rouge Noix de coquille Saint-Jacques in 2009 allowed consumers to identify the great scallop of Normandy as an emblem of sustainable fishing, distinct from other Atlantic scallops.

The label can be withdrawn from fishers who do not follow the requirements.

The scallop is a source of calcium, iodine, magnesium, omega 3, phosphorus, vitamin B12 and zinc.

Coquille Saint-Jacques is popularily served in the shell accompanied by an assortment of aromatics. And there was a time that still lingers when these scallops were served in a sauce.

Here are some selections.


  • 32 scallop shells

Heat scallop shells in a warm oven.


  • 500 g linguine

Prepare pasta while shallots are frying.

Apple Sauce

  • 1 kg apples (from Calville, Clochard, Rainette), quartered
  • 250 g onions, minced
  • 200 ml cider
  • 50 g butter (beurre d’Isigny)

Bake the apples in a low oven until they are soft, press through a mesh or sieve to produce a compote.

Sweat the onions in the butter until they soften.

Add the cider and compote to the onions, reduce. Keep warm.

Shrimp Sauce

This recipe is also suitable for crab and crawfish.

  • 250 g shrimp meat, cut small
  • 150 g shallots
  • 120 ml white wine
  • 1 lemon, juice and zest
  • 15 g butter (beurre d’Isigny)
  • 15 g rapeseed oil
  • 5 g salt

Sauté shallots in butter and oil, deglaze with wine, less than this quantity if a thick sauce is preferred. Stir shrimp meat into shallot mixture, add lemon juice and zest and a little salt. Keep warm.

Pesto Sauce

  • 250 ml crème fraîche / sour cream
  • 150 g shallots
  • 150 ml white wine
  • 120 g basil leaves
  • 50 g pine nuts
  • 8 anchovy fillets
  • 30 g butter (beurre d’Isigny)
  • 2 garlic cloves
  • 15 g olive oil
  • 10 g black peppercorns

Place garlic and peppercorns in a mortar, pound with pestle, add anchovies, pound, add basil, pound, add pine nuts and oil, pound into a paste.

Sauté shallots in butter.

Deglaze shallots with wine, season and reduce. Add cream and pesto, reduce. Keep warm.


  • 16 scallops, corals and nuts
  • 30 g butter (beurre d’Isigny)

Fry four corals and four nuts at a time in a knob of butter 1 minute on each side in a large frying pan.

Place pasta in large bowls, arrange scallops on top, finish with sauce.

Alternatively serve the scallops in choice of sauce in the warmed shells.

Indigenous Ingredients

Great Scallop

Legendary Dishes | Fagottini agli Scampi (prawn dumplings)


It would be a stretch of the imagination to suggest that Marco Polo brought the idea of these delightful prawn dumplings back from China. It is probably a coincidence that the same idea existed in Europe and in Asia at the same time. It is when you realise that anchovy sauce is the secret ingredient in both versions that the similiarity becomes spooky!


  • 300 g white durum wheat flour, t00
  • 3 eggs


  • 350 g prawns, chopped small
  • 90 g breadcrumbs
  • 45 ml white wine
  • 3 spring onions, sliced thin and long
  • 15 ml olive oil
  • 2 tsp anchovy sauce
  • 1 garlic clove
  • 10 g black pepper
  • 10 g salt
  • Savory

Sauce – 1

  • 200 ml fish stock
  • 150 g carrots, cut into cubes
  • 100 g potato, cut into cubes
  • 50 g tomato passata
  • 15 ml olive oil

Sauce – 2

  • 60 ml olive oil
  • 30 g black pepper

Brown the garlic and spring onions in the oil, remove the garlic. Add them prawns, sauté for a few minutes, pour the wine and heat through. Season, add choice of herb and take off the heat. Mix the breadcrumbs into the prawn mixture, leave to cool.

Meanwhile make the pasta dough. Roll thin, cut into rounds or squares, fill with the prawn mixture, twist ends to seal.

If using the first sauce, cook the carrots and potatoes in the fish stock. When the carrots and potatoes are cooked, add the passata and olive oil. Heat. For a coarse sauce mash the carrots and potatoes. For a smooth sauce blend the carrots, potatoes and passata.